Football Club Liverpool is an English professional football club from the city of the same name, located in Merseyside County. It was founded in 1892; The following year joined the England Football League. Since its inception, holds home games at the stadium “Enfield”. The stadium was built in 1884, it was originally played by another Liverpool football club, Everton. At the moment, “Enfield” accommodates about fifty-four thousand fans.
Liverpool is the 18-time champion of England, the 7-time holder of the Cup of England, the 8-time winner of the League Cup, the 15-time winner of the Supercup of England, the three-time winner of the UEFA Cup, the three-time winner of the Champions League, three-time winner of the UEFA Super Cup. In total, “Liverpool” won the European Cup eleven times, which is the fourth result after the Madrid “Real”, “Milan” and “Barcelona”. The most successful period in the club’s history comes in the 1970s and 1980s, when Bill Shankly and Bob Paisley, who together won the eleven league titles and seven European trophies for two, led the team.
Everton and Manchester United are the principal rivals from the early years, with which the Merseyside and North-West derby are played, respectively. The club’s anthem is the song You’ll Never Walk Alone, later sung by the Liverpool band Gerry & The Pacemakers.
According to Forbes for 2018, Liverpool ranked eighth in the list of the most expensive football clubs in the world and was estimated at $ 1.944 billion. According to the auditing company Deloitte, at the end of the 2016/17 season, Liverpool was ranked 9th in the ranking of football clubs with an annual income of 424.2 million euros
Enfield was built in 1884, on land adjacent to the Stanley Park area. Originally, the stadium was home to Everton. Later, he moved to the “Park”, due to a dispute over the lease, with the stadium owner, John Houlding. Left without a team, Houlding founded Liverpool in 1892, with the team still playing at Anfield. The initial capacity of the stadium was only 20,000, although 100 people attended the first match of the team.
In 1906, the terrace of the stadium was named “Spion Cop”, in honor of a hill in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The hill was the site of the battle of Spion Kop during the Second Boer War; more than 300 people from Lancashire, most of whom were natives of Liverpool, died in this place. The capacity of the tribune was 28,000 seats, which allowed it to become the largest single-tier stand in the world. Many tribunes in England also received the names Spion Kop, but the tribune on Anfield, the largest of them.
The largest capacity of the stadium was more than 60 thousand, until 1990 the capacity was 55 thousand. In connection with the report of Taylor and the decision of the Premier League, all standing stands were demolished for the season 1993/94, the capacity was reduced to 45,276 . As a result of Taylor’s report, the Camlin Road grandstand was also reconstructed, in 1992 renamed in honour of the club’s centenary, as Centuri Stand. Stands of the 2nd tier were also built on in 1998, which led to a foundation subsidence. As a result, for additional stability of the tribunes of the upper tier, wooden pillars were installed, by the beginning of the 1999/2000 season.
Liverpool is one of the most popular clubs in the world, and the average attendance of home games is one of the highest in Europe. The club management claims that the fans of the Reds include more than 200 official branches (English Association of International Branches (AIB)) in 30 countries of the world. The most dedicated fans of Liverpool call themselves “Kopites” (Eng. Kopites). So called fans, located on the terrace of the Kop (standing stand, now dismantled and converted into a sit-down) at the stadium “Enfield”. In 2008, a group of fans founded the farm-club of AFC Liverpool in order to give the fans, who do not have this opportunity, to watch the team games because of the high ticket prices. The song “You’ll Never Walk Alone” (written by American composers Richard Rogers and Oscar Hammerstein II) for the musical “Carousel” in 1945, later performed by the Liverpool beat band Gerry & The Pacemakers, is a hymn the club was first performed by the Reds fans at Anfield in the early 1960s. Since then, the composition has gained popularity among fans of other clubs. The name of the song adorns the upper part of the “Shankly Gate” – a monument established in honor of the former head coach on August 2, 1982. Also, the inscription “You’ll Never Walk Alone” adorns the renewed club emblem in 1998.
Fans of Liverpool were involved in two major football tragedies: “Eiselsky”, which occurred on May 25, 1985 in Brussels during the final game of the European Champions Cup between Juventus and Liverpool, in which 39 were killed fans of Juventus and the tragedy at Hillsboro, which occurred on April 15, 1989 in Sheffield during the semi-final game of the FA Cup, in which 96 Liverpool fans, including the cousin of the former captain, died because of fences around the stands teams Steven Gerrard
The most important rival for Liverpool is another Everston Merseyside club, the matches with their participation are called the Merseyside Derby. Their confrontation is connected with the founding of Liverpool, when the board of directors of Everton split into two warring parties in connection with the question of renting Enfield. Unlike other football standoffs, the rivalry between the “Red” and “Toffes” is not geographically, religiously or politically. Matches Merseyside derby, as a rule, collect notices, and get a ticket to these games can be difficult. This is one of the few derbies that does not bear mutual aggression by the opposing sides, and members of the same family can empathize with both clubs, therefore this opposition has also been called the “Family Derby”. However, since the mid-1980s, rivalry between clubs on and off the football field has intensified. Since the founding of the Premier League in 1992, more red cards were shown in the matches between these teams than in any other confrontation of the Premier League teams, and it was called “the most undisciplined and explosive league opposition”.
Liverpool’s rivalry with Manchester United is primarily meant as a confrontation between two rival cities of the industrial revolution in the 19th century. The rivalry between the teams intensified after Manchester United became the first English team to win the Champions Cup in 1968. In the 1970s and 1980s, the “Merseysides” significantly bypassed them, winning 4 Champions Cups. Since the beginning of the 90s, Manchester United began to dominate English football, making the standoff the most important
Liverpool founder John Houlding became the first chairman of the club, a position he held since its foundation in 1892 until 1904. John McKenna took over as chairman in 1909. Subsequently, McKenna became president of the football league. The presidency passed into different hands many times before John Smith, whose father was a shareholder of the club, assumed this role in 1973. He led in the most successful period in the history of Liverpool until his departure in 1990. He was succeeded by Noel White, who became chairman in 1990, and in August 1991, David Moors, whose family had been with the club for more than 50 years, became chairman. Moors owned 51 percent of club shares. Ten percent of the shares belong to the information company “Granada Media”. Five percent to building tycoon Stephen Morgan, three more to owner of the printing house Terry Neale.
On February 6, 2007, Moors sold the club to American businessmen George Gillette and Tom Hicks, who estimated the club and its debts at £ 219 million. The couple paid £ 5,000 per share. January 22, 2008 at the match Liverpool – “Aston Villa” Liverpool fans protested against the policies of Gillette and Hicks, as well as against the financial situation at the club, urging the couple to sell their shares in Liverpool. On April 16, 2010, Hicks and Gillett put up for sale the club of the English Premier League, Liverpool, which was deep in debt after three years of possession of the team. October 15, 2010, Liverpool was sold to the American company Fenway Sports Group for 300 million pounds.
Liverpool is a global brand: according to the 2010 report, the name of the club and associated intellectual property is estimated at £ 141 million, which is £ 5 million more than the previous year. In 2010, Forbes magazine valued the Liverpool brand at $ 822 million; Thus, the club’s brand ranked sixth in the world, after Manchester United, Real Madrid, Arsenal, Barcelona and Bavaria. Currently, the club occupies the 8th place in the list of the most profitable clubs, compiled by Deloitte. Income of Liverpool in the season 2009-10 was equal to 225.3 million euros.
Liverpool was founded because of a dispute over rents, between the Everton Committee and John Houlding, the club’s president and owner of land on Anfield. Houlding was accused of using his position for personal gain. After eight years at the stadium, Everton moved to Goodison Park in 1892, and Houlding founded Liverpool to play on Anfield. The club was originally named Everton F.C. and Athletic Grounds Ltd (“Everton Athletic”), but was later renamed Liverpool in June 1892 after the Football Association refused to recognize the club as Everton. As a result, the team was named in honor of the city – “Liverpool”.
The new club began performing in the Lancashire League. Two years later, the club enters the Football League, hitting the Second Division in the 1893/94 season. Winning it right off, Liverpool went into the First Division, but only gained a foothold on the second attempt, in the 1896/97 season.
Liverpool won their first champion title in the 1900/01 season, repeating the achievement in 5 years – in the 1905/06 season . The Reds reached the first final of the FA Cup in 1914, but lost 0: 1 Burnley. Then two more championships were won in the seasons 1921/22 and 1922/23, but after that, Liverpool did not win a single trophy until 1947, when the championship was won for the fifth time. The club again reached the final of the FA Cup in 1950, but lost to Arsenal 0: 2.
Liverpool flew into the second league in the 1953/54 season. During this period, the non-professional Worcester club in the FA Cup defeated the club in the 1958/59 season.
Shortly after this notorious result, Bill Shankly was appointed manager. The composition of the team seriously updated – 24 new players arrived at once. In addition, he turned the room at Enfield, originally used as a storeroom, into a room where coaches could discuss tactics over tea (or other drinks). There, Shankly, as well as the other founders of the Boot Room, Joe Fagan, Robin Bennett, and Bob Paisley, started the team restructuring.
Return to the First Division was achieved in the 1961/62 season, then the club won the League for the first time in 17 years in the 1963/64 season. Then in 1966, Liverpool won the 7th England Championship, and a year earlier, the Reds won their first England Cup in extra time against Leeds United. The club won the championship and the UEFA Cup, defeating Mönchengladbach 3-0 in the Borussia final, in 1973, and the FA Cup the following year. After that, Shankly decided to leave and was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley.
Paisley was even more successful. Under Paisley, Liverpool played 490 official matches in which he scored 275 victories, 91 matches brought to a draw and suffered 124 defeats. During this time, the club has won 19 major tournaments, including six league titles. Bob Paisley is one of two coaches in the world who have won the Champions League three times, having achieved this with one club – in 1977, 1978 and 1981.
Paisley resigned in 1983 and (like Shankly) handed over the reins to Boot Room’s comrade-in-arms to Joe Fagan. Liverpool won three trophies in Fagan’s first season: the championship, the Football League Cup and the European Cup, becoming the first English team to win three trophies for the season. Liverpool again reached the final of the European Cup in 1985. The match against Juventus was held in Brussels at the Eisel Stadium. Before the start of the match, a tragedy occurred: the Liverpool fans broke the fences that separated the two groups of fans and attacked Juventus fans. As a result, a crush began, in which 39 people died, mostly Italians. The match was decided not to cancel. Liverpool lost 0: 1. English clubs were banned from participating in European competitions for five years, Liverpool received a 10-year ban, which was subsequently reduced to six years. Fourteen fans got a criminal record for manslaughter.
Because of the disaster that took place, Joe Fagan resigned, Kenny Dalglish was appointed the team’s playing coach. During the time that he led Liverpool, the club won three more championships and two FA Cups, including the classic double (Championship and FA Cup) in the 1985/86 season. The success of Liverpool was overshadowed by the tragedy at the Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield. During the semi-final of the FA Cup with Nottingham Forest, April 15, 1989. As a result of the crush, hundreds of Liverpool fans suffered. 93 people died the same day, two more died in hospital from their injuries, the 96th died almost four years later without regaining consciousness. In connection with the tragedy at the Hillsboro Stadium, the government ordered a safety audit at all stadiums in the UK, which resulted in a document called the Taylor Report. In the report, the commission recognized that the main cause of the disaster was the failure of police control.
1989 was remembered by the fans of “Liverpool” and participation in the most dramatic end of the season for all time. The club lost the title by goal difference, in the last round of the season, at home, losing to the future champion – Arsenal. Dalglish was at the edge of the field during the Hillsborough tragedy. After the death of Liverpool fans, he helped the families and friends of the victims, he fought this fight in the future, right up to the official admission of police guilt in the death of fans. Resigned due to the stress experienced (much later he returned and won, at the moment, the last trophy for Liverpool, the 2012 League Cup). Former player of Liverpool and the national team of Scotland Graeme Sunness replaced him. In addition to winning the FA Cup in 1992, Souness did not succeed and was replaced by a former member of the Boot Room, Roy Evans in 1994. Evans worked a little better: his only trophy was the Football League Cup, won in 1995. One significant event was a 4: 3 win over Newcastle United at Anfield on April 3, 1996, which was named the April match of the decade in the Premier League in April 2003. Gerard Houllier was appointed co-manager in the 1998/99 season, but remained the only one after Evans resigned in November 1998.
On June 1, 2012, Brendan Rogers became a new Liverpool coach, who had a good track record of working with Swansea City. The era of the Northern Irishman turned out to be ambiguous. Having taken over the reins from his predecessor, Rogers failed several matches at the start of the championship, which ultimately affected the final result – the team took 7th place. However, the next season of 2013/2014 was the most successful Rogers career. The team, almost without losing points at the start of the championship, showed a convincing game. The newcomer of the team, Daniel Sturridge, showed his best side. For Christmas, the team took 1st place. The confident game in the first half of 2014 gave reason for the scaffold and team fans to hope, for the first time in 24 years, to succeed in the championship. However, a series of nondescript matches and a weak ending of the championship made it possible to take only 2nd place in the tournament. In that season, Liverpool striker Luis Suarez became the Premier League top scorer (scoring 31 goals).
After the disastrous summer transfer window and the departure of the team’s leading player, Luis Suarez, the team started the championship very strained and got the first points with great difficulty. After the first 4 games followed several painful defeats, which in the end did not allow to hope for getting into the top-4. The faded performance of the team in the Champions League also left its mark. In the address of the coach fell down charges from fans and calls to leave his post. The beginning of 2015 still pleased the fans of the team with almost 10 match-win-win series. However, the failing ending of the championship nullified all the attempts of the team. The 2014/2015 season was the last in the Reds for the legendary Liverpool captain Stephen Gerrard, who has played for the club since 1998. The midfielder has become a free agent in the US “Los Angeles Galaxy”. Despite the final 6th place and missing the Champions League, the coach was not fired. Rogers was given a hard ultimatum – either he begins to strive for the Champions League zone and wins a trophy, or he will be fired.
The start of the 2015/16 season was unconvincing, and on October 4, 2015 Rogers was fired. At that moment, Liverpool was ranked 10th in the championship.
On October 8, 2015, an agreement was concluded between the Liverpool football club and former Dortmund Borussia coach Jürgen Klopp. The contract is valid for 3 years .. Already in the first season, Klopp managed to take Liverpool to the League Cup and Europa League Final, but the team failed in both finals (losing to Manchester City and Seville, respectively).